Since we are in the information age, one thing you can never run away from is the term bandwidth, as long as you use the internet you cannot hide away from this bandwidth guy.
So what do you understand by the term bandwidth, most of us are confused by this and sometimes we miss interpret the whole circus about it. And here are some of the terms that come with it (Dedicated, managed/shared, broadband etc).
To understand bandwidth, it's best to think of the Internet as a series of highways and information as cars. If there's only one car on the highway, that car will travel quickly and easily (Known as Dedicated link). If there are many cars, however (also known as Shared/managed), traffic can build up and slow things down. The Internet works the same way -- if only one person is downloading one file, the transfer should happen fairly quickly. If several people are trying to download the same file, though, the transfer can be much slower.
In this analogy, bandwidth is the number of lanes on the highway. If a Web site's bandwidth is too low, traffic will become congested. If the Web site increases its bandwidth, information will be able to travel back and forth without much of a hassle. Bandwidth is important for Internet, because sending large amounts of video and audio data over the Internet requires large bandwidths.
Units of measure are as follows:
8 bits always represent one character let me say like a single latter “a” or “A” or it can be a Number “2”. Each key you type on your keyboard is 8 bits = 1 byte example (00111001) that’s a binary way of representing a byte or a single character.
1 byte = 8 bits
1,000 bytes = 1kb (kilobyte – actually 1,024 bytes but usually written as 1,000)
1,000,000 bytes = 1mb (megabyte)
1,000,000,000 = 1 GB (gigabyte)
1,000,000,000,000 = 1 TB (Terabyte)
HOW MUCH DO YOU NEED?
The question of how much bandwidth you need depends on what you use the internet for, what traffic (Video, audio, images or just mail and normal internet use), how many users, applications, and scalability. For many ISPs they usually give less than what you actually pay for unless you are keen to monitor it using some bandwidth monitoring tools.
One single user will be satisfied with 56kps for his/her normal surfing and emails but that will not be enough for a small office of more than two Pc’s because that’s when you start complaining of slow terrible speeds, but one should also mind about the applications running on the computer too.
For a small office 128kbps is what I would recommend for 3-5 computers but depending on what type of work or traffic moving on the network.
For stable video streaming, 512kbs would be ok but more than 700kbps would be a very good recommendation but also depending on how many users are on that particular network and what they are doing.
Most people always complain to ISPs of poor bandwidth but sometimes it’s the applications that are running on their computers, doing updates and peer-to-peer applications like Live wire and torrents, that always consume a lot of bandwidth, always completely close them unless you need them.
There is so much about Bandwidth but that would be a simple explanation for it and so many other factors that affect it e.g. the medium used, weather, distance etc
There is so much about the internet that most Ugandan do not know about? Did you know that u can actually make free phone calls online?....actually without spending any penny! And guess what...the calls can reduce your phone bills when calling the loved ones abroad? These services use a voip technology to transfer voice over the internet in short terms referred to VOIP.
Skype is a software application that allows users to make voice calls over the Internet. Calls to other users of the service and to free-of-charge numbers, are free, in some countries like United States, UK, chile, Canada etc, calls to other landlines and mobile phones can be made for a fee. I’ve used the service a few times calling my sisters in UK and am glad to say no more international mobile calls charges for me I really save a lot now days and for you to hook up onto the service is through a simple process.
- Log onto www.skype.com
- Sign up for the service’s link containing your logon and download details will be sent to your inbox
- Download the software from the link provided in your inbox
- After the download. Run install
- Now Your ready to make free calls
Skype allows you to have local numbers in some countries like Brazil, Poland, United Kingdom with calls to the number charged at the same rate as calls to fixed lines in the country.
Additional features include instant messaging, file transfer and video conferencing.
Google Talk (GTalk) is a free calling service on Windows and web-based application developed by Google Inc it can be used for instant messaging and voice over internet protocol (VOIP), the first beta version of the program was released on August 24, 2005.
The Google Talk client is only available for Microsoft Windows (2000, XP, Server 2003, Vista and Windows). The beauty of this service is the ability to use it on mobile clients like the Blackberry, iPhone and some nokia phones with internet connection. This gives you the ability to make free calls from your mobile.
In some countries like the states you can actually get a number for the service. The best thing about all this. Is that you don’t need to be at one physical location to make a call all you need to have is internet.
The service is accessed through the Google website or just log onto www.google.com/gtalk
Additional services include offline messaging, Gmail and voice mailing with the release of the Google Talk gadget it allows you to have all these services in the palm of your hand.
Yahoo! Messenger is one of the most used chating or messaging client on the internet though it allows free calls and sms online most people know it for the latter. The one thing that makes it different is it mostly advertisement-supported instant messaging client and associated protocol provided by Yahoo
Messenger is provided free of charge and can be downloaded and used with a generic "Yahoo! ID" which also allows access to other Yahoo! services, such as Yahoo mail, news, weather, shopping etc
For you to use the services you need to have a microphone and a headphone with this u can make PC-PC,for free but PC-Phone and Phone-to-PC service there’ll be a small charge ,
The client bands all the yahoo services in one package that incase you receive emails it’ll automatically notify the user
Additional services include file transfers, webcam hosting, text messaging service. All it takes to enjoy this free service is to log onto site below and download the free software and install it on your machine.
VoipBuster is a free program that uses the latest technology to bring free and high-quality voice communications to people all over the world. When you use the free VoipBuster software, you can call regular phones in various popular destinations for free or call at an incredible low rate to any other phone on the planet.
You can also call all your online friends (pc-to-pc calls) as long as you like, for free. Just the download should take only a few moments depending on your connection speed.
Ekiga.net provides free call using internet telephony commonly known as VoIP; this service provider stands out from the rest because of his ability to allow the user a choice of different software to make the calls.
I like the VoIP and mails it is like using electronic mails though you’re making a call: before you can start making calls a few things are needed I’ve tried to list them down below
• You need an address. That's mainly what Ekiga.net is for: giving free SIP (soft internet phones)-Addresses.
• You need a software to use this address. Any SIP aware software will do and you can download them off the internet they’re several, but we recommend the free Ekiga soft phone, which has Instant-Messaging, Audio and Video so that you don’t get any issues installing and setting it
For more details on how to use the service please log onto
Have you ever asked yourself who really owns the Internet? Ever wondered if there is this big Guy out there who would wake up one morning and says that the internet has closed down. So who owns the internet? The simple answer is no one owns the internet. This is what makes it not to belong to any one. Because it belongs to lots of people even you can take part.
If you think of the Internet as a unified, single entity, then no one owns it. There are organizations that determine the Internet's structure and how it works, but they don't have any ownership over the Internet itself. No government can lay claim to owning the Internet, nor can any company. The Internet is like the telephone system .No one owns the whole thing, for example if am to give you the Ugandan way, if MTN goes down, Uganda telecom still can run, if Warid goes down Zain can still do and so forth, but if you put them together you get this one whole huge network that interconnects but run with the same principles and rules that govern them otherwise they would not interconnect just like the internet world wide.
Just imagine you're in a room full of people from different countries, and everyone only speaks his or her native language. In order to communicate, you'd have to come up with a standard set of rules and vocabulary. That's what makes the Internet so remarkable: It's a system that lets different computer networks communicate with each other using a standardized set of rules. Without rules, these computer networks wouldn't be able to communicate with each other.
Think for a minute about the scope of the Internet. It's a collection of inter-networked computer systems that spans the entire globe. It depends on several sets of rules called protocols. These protocols make it possible for computer communication across networks. It also relies on a huge infrastructure of routers, Network Access Points (NAPs) and computer systems. Then there are the satellites, miles of cable and hundreds of wireless routers that transmit signals between computers and networks.
It's a truly global system. Cables crisscross countries and oceans, crossing borders and linking some of the world's most remote locations to everyone else. And the Internet is still growing. More computers link to it every day, and various organizations and companies are working to extend Internet access to countries that aren't yet connected.
The Internet is a giant system made up of much smaller systems. If it's one thing, does it have a single owner? Is there some person or entity that controls the Internet? Is it possible for someone to own something that spans nations and oceans?
From another point of view, thousands of people and organizations own the Internet. The Internet consists of lots of different bits and pieces, each of which has an owner. Some of these owners can control the quality and level of access you have to the Internet. They might not own the entire system, but they can impact your Internet experience.
Internet backbone. In the early days of the Internet, ARPANET served as the system's backbone. Today, several large corporations provide the routers and cable that make up the Internet backbone. These companies are upstream Internet Service Providers (ISPs). That means that anyone who wants to access the Internet must ultimately work with these companies, which include:
• Level 3
Then you have all the smaller ISPs. Many individual consumers and businesses subscribe to ISPs that aren't part of the Internet backbone. These ISPs negotiate with the upstream ISPs for Internet access.Cable and DSL companies are examples of smaller ISPs. Such companies are concerned with what the industry calls the last mile .The distance between the end consumer and Internet connectivity.
Within the backbone are Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), which are physical connections between networks that allow data exchanges. For example, while Sprint, Verizon and AT&T provide part of the Internet backbone's infrastructure, the three networks aren't intertwined. They connect together at an IXP. Several companies and non-profit organizations administer IXPs.
The individual computer networks that make up the Internet can have owners. Every ISP has its own network. Several nations' governments oversee computer networks. Many companies have local area networks (LANs) that link to the Internet. Each of these networks is both a part of the Internet and its own separate entity. Depending on local laws, the owners of these networks can control the level of access users have to the Internet.
You might consider yourself to be an owner of the Internet. Do you own a device that you use to connect to the Internet? If so, that means the device you own becomes part of the enormous inter-networked system. You are the proud owner of part of the Internet. It's just a very small part.
If no one owns the Internet, then who is responsible for making sure everything works?
Here are The Internet's Caretakers
As mentioned earlier, the Internet works because of a system of rules called protocols. By following these protocols, computers can send information across the network to other computers. If there were no protocols, then there'd be no guarantee that the information sent from one computer could be understood by another, or that it'd even reach the right destination.
As the Internet evolves, these protocols must also change. That means someone has to be in charge of the rules. There are several organizations that oversee the Internet's infrastructure and protocols. They are:
• The Internet Society: A nonprofit organization that develops Internet standards, policies and education.
• The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): An international organization with an open membership policy that has several working groups. Each working group concentrates on a specific topic, such as Internet security. Collectively, these working groups try to maintain the Internet's architecture and stability.
• The Internet Architecture Board (IAB): An IETF committee, the IAB's mission is to oversee the design of Internet protocols and standards.
• The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): A private nonprofit corporation, ICANN manages the Internet's Domain Name System (DNS). ICANN is responsible for making sure that every domain name links to the correct IP address.
The Internet Society and IETF are open membership organizations. Both welcome the participation and input of Internet experts. They shape the way the Internet works and evolves.
ICANN, on the other hand, is a private organization. The exclusive nature of ICANN concerns some people. They argue that ICANN holds a lot of power over anyone who wants to register a domain name. ICANN makes money by accrediting vendors called registrars. These registrars then sell domain names to consumers and businesses. If you want to register a specific domain name, ultimately ICANN decides if you can have it.
While none of these organizations own the Internet, they each influence how the Internet works. The Internet has no central owner. While its structure remains carefully designed and maintained, the actual content on the Internet continues to be the untamed cyberspace we all know and love.
Most of us experience electromagnetic interference on a fairly regular basis. For example:
An airplane contains a number of radios for a variety of tasks. There is a radio that the pilots use to talk to ground control and air traffic control (ATC). There is another radio that the plane uses to disclose its position to ATC computers. There are radar units used for guidance and weather detection, and so on. All of these radios are transmitting and receiving information at specific frequencies. If someone were to turn on a cell phone, the cell phone would transmit with a great deal of power (up to 3 watts). If it happens to create interference that overlaps with radio frequencies the plane is using, then messages between people or computers may be garbled. If one of the wires in the plane has damaged shielding, there is some possibility of the wire picking up the phone's signals just like your computer's speakers do. That could create faulty messages between pieces of equipment within the plane.
Many hospitals have installed wireless networks for equipment networking. For example, look at the picture of the heart monitor in How Emergency Rooms Work. The black antenna sticking out of the top of the monitor connects it back to the nursing station via a wireless network. If you use your cell phone and it creates interference, it can disrupt the transmissions between different pieces of equipment. That is true even if you simply have the cell phone turned on -- the cell phone and tower handshake with each other every couple of minutes, and your phone sends a burst of data during each handshake.
The prohibition on laptops and CD players during takeoff and landing is addressing the same issue, but the concerns here might fall into the category of "better safe than sorry." A poorly shielded laptop could transmit a fair amount of radio energy at its operating frequency, and this could, theoretically, create a problem.
iTwin relieves us from a pain of file sharing remotely. Gone are the days that you have to pick a file from buddy using file sharing servers or certain server at your provider. With iTwin’s brilliant innovative idea, it will be a lot easier with USB connection. iTwin takes the idea of remote connection and transfers it to hardware.
A simple two-part USB drive allows one user to plug it in to one computer and then snap off and hand the second part to someone else with another computer. They will then have instant access to the other computer. It’s as if there was a hard line cable connecting two computers anywhere in the world, but there is no cable, just the USB drives and the Internet. As iTwin puts it, they’re the “cable-less cable.”
The idea came to the team when they realized that remote access to a second computer was simply too complicated for most users. Everyone gets how to use USB drives, but those simply either don’t have enough storage to share an entire other computer’s hard drive, or are not secure enough (you could lose the drive, etc). So iTwin combines the two technologies.
This is a product totally designed for the mass market, not the techies, though they’re obviously welcome to buy and use it as well, iTwin notes. Next year, some 200 million flash drives are expected to be sold, that’s the market iTwin is looking at.
The plan is to launch iTwin in the first half of 2010 for $99. CEO Lux Anatharaman and COO Kal Takru presented the company today. They are based in Singapore.