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lets encrypt

Letsencrypt.org was founded to help address some of the issues in the web industry that led to the widespread failure of website owners and operators in obtaining secure certificates.

The average website you visit is typically accessed over HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol). Accessing a site over HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) is a different process from HTTP. Accessing a site over HTTP makes your traffic visible to everyone on the network. Using tools like WireShark, if you were to park yourself at the point where your network meets the internet, you’d be able to see all the traffic (URLs, content, form data) of people on your network. This is how people perform Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks. In a MITM attack, someone sits on the connection between two networks and just eavesdrops on the data going back and forth. Also, by being in the middle of the communication stream, the attacker could modify the contents going back and forth, sending you malicious data and changing what you are transmitting to the server.

Command Prompt or CMD is one of the most powerful tools in Windows, but sadly, it is also the most ignored or least used tool by the Windows users unlike the Unix, Linus and Mac OSX users who make extensive use of the terminal windows which are referred to as the cmd in windows. With the advent of the GUI based operating System, users starting feeling that computing through the command based tools was boring and tiresome as took one to understand and memorize the command they used to accomplish their routine tasks. This ultimately led the command prompt or command line into obscurity. And it ended up being used by sophisticated people normal users referred to as nerds or geeks. However the cmd is not useless, in fact, it’s pretty useful. This article provides some excellent tricks and how to’s that will make you acknowledge the power of the Windows command line tool. It will also provide you with an insight of how the windows command line is not only a useful too but also a tool you should definitely give more respect to.

For someone to launch a hack, they either need to be on site or do it remotely but I all scenarios, the computer being hacked has to be on a network of some sort otherwise no hack will be possible. If you are on a private network, it is always wise of you to check for the number of users on the same network so as to know if any of them are not allowed to have access. To accomplish this using CMD,

ClickStart on your keyboard and then type “cmd” without the quotes into the quick search. Right click the app link and click “Run as administrator”, if prompted for a password enters the password or if the prompt requires a yes or no, select yes. A window just like the one below will pop up.

In the window above, type “net view” without the quote s and hit enter. A list of the all the users on the same network as you will be generated and shown as below.

Howto Develop a Hello World Android Application using IntelliJ Idea This was written on the basis that Google is no longer supporting Eclipse IDE for android development and that the official android development IDE is the Android Studio which was based off of JetBrains’ IDE called IntelliJ Idea.

Everywhere you go, people are using mobile devices to keep in touch with family and friends, take a picture to post on a social website, find the location of a restaurant, or check the latest news headlines. Mobile devices come in many different shapes and styles. Mobile phones run a variety of different operating systems such as Apple's iOS, Google's Android, and Research In Motion's Blackberry.

Some have large displays, physical keyboards, and run on 3G, 4G, 5G only in China so far, or Wi-Fi networks. Mobile phones may also have sensors for acceleration, location, or even payments. Some of these devices aren't even phones; they're tablets with larger displays and a data-only network connection.

Despite their differences, mobile devices are similar in that they all run mobile applications.

nmapPort scanning is the act of systematically scanning a computer’s ports. A port on a computer is a place where information goes into and out of the computer and port scanning identifies the status of any of these ports.

Port scanning has legitimate use in network management but it can also be used in a malicious nature if an attacker is looking for weakened access point to break into a computer. Usually services running on these ports broadcast version and other information about itself for troubleshooting and other kinds of uses but this also gives a lot of information to the would be attacker.

Type of port scans

This type of scan attempts to connect to all known 65,535 ports

This is a more focused scan and looks for only known services to exploit

Fragmented Packets
This type of scan sends packet fragments that get through simple packet filters in a firewall and later joined back together at the target

This type of scan looks for all open UDP ports

Sweep Scan
This kind of scan connects on the same port on more than one machine for example looking for any FTP servers an attacker would do a sweep scan for port 21 over a range of given network machines

Stealth scan
This kind of scan prevents the scanned computer from recording the port scan activities, this is due to the structure of the request sent by the port scanner.

Tools of the trade
The most popular tool for port scanning is nmap and provides a wide variety of options of performing different kind of port scans like stealth scans and many more. Its modular architecture has also enabled development of plugins that have expanded its capabilities

These attacks can now be easily detected by firewalls and intrusion detection systems. Current intrusion detection systems like snort can at times frustrate the attacker by dropping packets used in scanning giving the port scanning tools false positives.

Some other way of defeating the port scans is to install services on ports other than the default ports and also to disable display of service banner information to stop any finger print scans

Port scanning is not illegal per se but is most times indicative of beginnings of an attack hence measure have to be taken to secure any internet facing devices.

What is CMD?,
Basically CMD stands for Command, CMD is the interface which was used in the early ages of the computer revolution before a Graphical User Interface was invented by Apple .Inc on a Macintosh Computer. The graphical User Interface was later adopted by the PC or Windows computer later on. The CMD interface or window is normally a black screen with lines and it operates with commands issued by the user through keyboard input.

To launch the command line on a windows 7 or later version, Press the Windows Key, Type “CMD, (without the quotes) and hit the return or Enter key on the Keyboard.
A window like the one below will be launched and you will be able to proceed with checking for system software and hardware specification.

To check for system software and hardware, Typesysteminfo” in the command line and press the Enter on your keyboard.