Like we promised to deliver here we are with a man (Ray Tomlinson) who has made it possible for all of us to communicate to friends, families, business partners, relatives, loved ones all over the world with just an email click away.
Ray Tomlinson in late 1971, he sent the first email message and the message is believed to be “QWERTYIOP” he recalls.
Ray is a man who picked @ as the locator symbol in electronic addresses and his invention “email” launched the digital information revolution of all times.
This all started in 1968 at BBN (Bolt Beranek and Newman) company where Tomlinson worked as a computer engineer. By then BBN was hired by the United States Defense Department to build ARPANET, the known precursor to the Internet.
As he was tinkering around with an electronic message program called Send Message Program “SNDMSG” , which he had written to allow programmers and researchers working on Digital PDP-10s, (one of the early ARPANET computers) to leave messages for each other.
He says, those SNDMSG messages were not email exactly…..they only worked locally. The SNDMSG had been designed to allow the exchange of messages between users who shared the same computer. Users could create a text file and deliver it to a designated “mail box”. A mail box was simply a file with a particular name. Tomlinson wrote “It’s only special property was . . . [users] could write more material onto the end of the mailbox, but they couldn't read or overwrite what was already there."
While Tomlinson was working around SNDMSG, he had an experimental file transfer protocol called CYPNET which was transferring files among linked computers at remote sites within ARPANET. (At the time, the ARPANET consisted of 15 nodes, located at places like UCLA in California, the University of Utah in Salt Lake City and at BBN in Cambridge, Massachusetts.). He said “The idea occurred to me that CYPNET could append material to a mailbox file as readily as SNDMSG could”.
CYPNET had been designed to send and receive files with no provision for appending to a file. Tomlinson decided to adapt CYPNET to use SNDMSG to deliver messages to mailboxes on remote machines through ARPANET.
Tomlinson’s first problem he had with his first e-mail program was finding a way to separate the person to whom one was addressing a message from the computer or network they were using – which he solved with the symbol @.
He recalled. "I used the @ sign to indicate that the user was 'at' some other host rather than being local." He chose the @ symbol to distinguish between messages addressed to mailboxes in the local machine and messages that were headed out onto the network.
It could just as easily have been a square bracket or even a comma that would come to be typed in every e-mail address, “but they were already being used, and of the characters that were left, @ was best. Plus it conveyed a sense of place, which seemed to suit.”
Tomlinson proceeded by sending himself an e-mail message. The first message was sent between two machines that were literally side-by-side, those were BBN two PDP-10 computers wired together through ARPANET.
First, he chose the @ symbol to distinguish between messages addressed to mailboxes in the local machine and messages that were headed out onto the network. "The @ sign seemed to make sense," he recalled. "I used the @ sign to indicate that the user was 'at' some other host rather than being local."
Then he sent himself an e-mail message. BBN had two PDP-10 computers wired together through the ARPANET. "The first message was sent between two machines that were literally side-by-side. The only physical connection they had, however, was through the ARPANET," according to Tomlinson. The message flew out via the network between two machines in the same room in Cambridge; and the message was QWERTYIOP “set of letters on the top of the computer keyboard.”
Once Tomlinson was satisfied that SNDMSG worked on the network, he sent a message to colleagues letting them know about the new feature, with instructions for placing an @ in between the user's login name and the name of his host computer. "The first use of network mail," says Tomlinson, "announced its own existence."
Tomlinson's new program almost instantly became the first killer app. "After we delivered the enhanced version of SNDMSG to other sites, (so that there was someone out there to talk to) virtually all my communication was via e-mail," he remembers. Two years later, a study found that 75 percent of all traffic on ARPANET was e-mail.
Today its estimated over a billion emails are sent out and received every single second. This has all been possible due to Ray Tomlinson’s love for invention and experimental ideas.
Today, e-mail has become one of the most important communications platforms the world has known, and from the various services available- Yahoo!, Hotmail, Gmail, Excite and many more out there.
However today, email has been turned by some people into a criminal tool that is menace of spam or junk e-mail.
Tomlinson said he doesn’t feel too guilty, though. "Spam certainly is a problem, but at the time I just didn't think about it. E-mail is like any tool - it can be used for good or bad. If you’re looking for a way to spread a virus with a computer, then you’re going to use the most popular communication tool - and that’s e-mail.
He continues “at that time, the number of people who used e-mail was very small (Between 500 to 1,000). So if you were getting spam, you'd know who was sending it. You'd be able to say to them: that's not a good thing to do."
But due to wide use of emails, possibilities of sending a message anonymously emerged.
All in all, Ray Tomlinson is among the many famous ICT people who have contributed greatly, positively to our developments in the world digital evolution.
Lenovo today announced three new PC devices that deliver power, performance and style to the digital home experience. Lenovo's first home theatre PC – the IdeaCentre Q700 – provides high definition 1080p playback and digital surround sound for a variety of multimedia formats displayed right on a user's HDTV. Lenovo's first home server - the IdeaCentre D400 - makes managing content across several PCs simple.
In addition, the IdeaCentre Q100 and Q110 nettops continue to push the envelope on thin and light design as the world's thinnest nettops1 while extending the entertainment experience with support for HD video on the Q110. Lenovo also expanded its ultraportable line with the thin and light IdeaPad U450p for extra portability.
• "Lenovo will be a great addition to the category of home servers powered by Windows Home Server software," said Eugene Saburi, general manager, Microsoft Solutions Marketing. "With the IdeaCentre D400 home server coinciding with the availability of Windows 7 on Lenovo laptops and netbooks, consumers will have an affordable solution that enables them to unleash the power of their home networks."
• "We created our latest IdeaCentre PCs to help consumers manage their personal and professional content with the performance they need and with a style that expresses their individuality," said Dion Weisler, vice president, Business Operations, Lenovo. "Our super small nettops give consumers the portability of a laptop, making them a versatile and affordable part of the digital home experience."
• "The Lenovo Q110 with NVIDIA ION delivers knockout graphics capabilities for its diminutive size," said Manoj Gujral, general manager, Desktop GPU Business, NVIDIA. "With its ION graphics processor, this tiny PC can do more than many full-size desktops, letting users enjoy full HD movies, play mainstream games, edit family videos and even quickly convert video to an MP3 player."
The IdeaCentre Q700 - Multimedia Powerhouse for the Home
Lenovo's DVD-like IdeaCentre home theater PC connects with multiple devices, including digital cameras, smartphones and more so consumers can watch videos in full HD resolution, view photos and listen to music all on their TV. They can also watch and record digital TV with the optional TV tuner and remote while seamlessly integrates multiple media sources into a single device.
Key Features Include:
• Full High Definition: Supports 1920x1080 graphics and 7.1 digital surround sound
• Fast Intel Core™2 Duo Processors: Provides silent and smooth video playback
• Plenty of Storage: Stores up to 1 terabyte of content with eight USB ports and an eSATA port
Additional details for the IdeaCentre Q700 can be found on www.lenovo.com
IdeaCentre D400 – Simple Storage for Work and Play
Lenovo's IdeaCentre D400 home server securely houses large amounts of data for professional and personal use, including videos, music and photos. Users can easily set up a home network to store and share files across different devices such as PCs and smartphones. They can also regularly back up PCs on the network to support a small office or home office.
Key Features Include:
• Plenty of Storage: Supports up to eight terabytes of total storage
• Expandable and Easy to Use: Mix and match different brands and capacities of hard drives and even add and remove them while the PC is running. Connect multiple external storage devices with five USB ports, including a front-mounted port with one-touch data copy function and an eSATA port for high-speed external data transfer
• Dependable and Secure: Duplicate important data on multiple hard disk drives for backup and security
• Access Anywhere: Remotely access files from anywhere with an Internet connection by connecting remotely to the hub via a secure web page4
Additional details for the D400 can be found on www.lenovo.com.
The Idea Centre Q100 and Q110 – Thinning Down the Desktop
The IdeaCentre Q100 and Q110 nettops complete the collection of new digital lifestyle devices and stand out with a stylish black patterned design. These tiny PCs measure 0.7 inches thin, making them the thinnest nettops yet1 at just the size of a small book. The nettops feature an Intel Atom processor, making them ideal for performing basic functions like web surfing, downloading content and producing Internet-based documents. The Q110 may be the smallest, most powerful nettop yet. Equipped with Nvidia ION graphics, the nettop supports HD video and can handle accelerated media conversion and other tasks consumers would expect from full size desktops.
• Ultra Slim and Small - At only 6 x 6.3 x 0.7 inches thin, the size of this tiny desktop makes it perfect for tight spaces. The nettop can even be mounted on the back of a monitor.
• Energy Efficient- The Q100 runs on just 14 watts when idle and 40 watts at full operation
• Enhanced Multimedia: The Q100 supports VGA output, while the Q110 supports 1080p high definition video with DirectX 10 graphics for crisp and vibrant content and 3G games and also enables smooth playback with Nvidia CUDA technology
Additional details for the Q100 and Q110 can be found at www.lenovo.com.
The IdeaPad U450p Laptop – Thin and Light Pumps Up Screen Size
The IdeaPad U450p laptop is designed for those looking to balance mobility and performance with style and affordability. Following the introduction of the IdeaPad U350, the 14-inch U450p offers Intel consumer ultra low voltage processors, long battery life and a wide range of entertainment and productivity features.
• Thin and Light: Sporting a sleek, textured design, the U450p laptop is 0.9inches thin and weighs less than five pounds.5
• Optimized for Entertainment: With a High-Definition 16:9 screen, an HDMI connector and fast DDR3 memory, the laptop provides an excellent entertainment experience. It also includes a DVD burner/player for anytime access to multimedia on a CD or DVD.
• Packed with Smart Features: The laptop comes with a range of smart features designed to make computing more convenient and productive, including OneKey™ Rescue System for easy data and system recovery and VeriFace™ facial recognition technology.
Additional details for the U450p can be found on www.lenovo.com.
Pricing and Availability6
The IdeaCentre Q700 home theatre PC and IdeaPad U450p laptop are available immediately through business partners and www.lenovo.com. The IdeaCentre D400 home server and Q100 and Q110 nettops will be available in mid-September.
The IdeaCentre D400 home server and Q700 home theatre PC start at approximately $499. The IdeaCentre Q100 and Q110 nettops start at approximately $249 and $349. The IdeaPad U450p laptop starts at approximately $799.
In Uganda today all entertainment shopping arcades are filled with what most refer to as Plasma and LCD screens; they seem to be the in thing these days both in people’s homes and entertainment centers.
But the puzzling Question is what the difference between plasma and LCD TVs is and which of the two is durable and cost effective considering Uganda’s cost of living.
Plasma and LCD technology — what's the difference?
Plasma and LCD panels may look similar in appearance, but the flat screen and thin profile differ. Plasma screens use a matrix of tiny gas plasma cells charged by precise electrical voltages to create a picture. LCD screens (liquid crystal display) are in layman's terms sandwiches made up of liquid crystal pushed in the space between two glass plates. Images are created by varying the amount of electrical charge applied to the crystals. Each technology has its strengths and weaknesses, as you'll read below.
Is there a difference in picture quality between plasma and LCD screens and normal CRT TVs?
It's not what's happening behind the screen that's important — it's how the screen performs as a television that matters most. , hence plasma and LCD sets produce excellent pictures. Some home entertainment specialists and gamers still say CRTs produce the best overall images (although the latest plasmas are particularly good, and LCD sets are quickly catching up in terms of quality with advances like LED backlighting).
The ADVANTAGES of Plasma over LCD are:
The DISADVANTAGES of Plasma vs LCD include:
LCD television ADVANTAGES over Plasma include:
DISADVANTAGES of LCD vs Plasma televisions include:
|Size and weight||Generally larger than LCDs, with screens up to 71 inches. Plasma TVs are usually around 10% heavier than LCD screens (meaning great care should be taken when mounting on a wall)||Usually no larger than 46 inches, though larger TVs are in development. LCDs are often slightly thinner than plasma TVs.|
|Quality of Picture||Usually plasma screens have better contrast. Both have excellent quality and sharpness.||LCD usually has a slightly clearer picture in smaller models and a higher resolution.|
|"Image Burn"||Nowhere near as much of a problem now as a few years ago, there is still a slight concern that images left still for a long time could be etched into the screen.||This is not a problem with LCD screens.|
|Brightness and glare||In a fully dark room, plasma TVs have better contrast and brightness than LCD screens.||LCD TVs generally reflect less light and glare, so far better in normal light conditions|
|Lifespan||Usually, plasma screens last for up to 60,000 hours before they dim by half.||LCD TVs usually last 60,000 hours or more before they dim by a half.|
|Energy usage||Plasma uses slightly more power than LCD screens.||LCD TVs often use less power than plasma screens. They can consume 60% less power than a CRT television|
|Viewing angle||Plasma tends to have slightly better viewing angles than LCD.||Some models have a restricted viewing angle, but many allow up to 160-degree|
Which is better value for me right now: plasma or LCD?
If you're in the market for a large screen television — and we're talking 50 inches and above — then we'd suggest a plasma screen. LCDs can give you better resolution; plasma still has the edge in terms of picture quality. One other thing to lookout for, whether you opt for plasma or LCD, is an integrated HD digital tuner — some TVs still have analog tuners, which look pretty terrible on a large screen.
At the end of the day (17-inch to 42-inch TVs), LCD is the only way to go if you want something slim and tasteful. And the best thing is that LCDs are getting cheaper all the time.
There has also been a lot of debate surrounding use in bright environments versus dark, cinema-like conditions. The traditional wisdom is that LCD performs better during the day due to its backlighting system, and that plasma in a dark environment, as it uses a glass front. Nonetheless, products like the non-reflective Pioneer Kuro plasmas and LED-backlit LCD panels with their better blacks completely turn this logic on its head. That said, plasmas do generally perform better in the dark, and models with an anti-reflective coating — such as the new Panasonic plasmas — are the best all-rounders.
If you're a true high-def junkie who's keen to see every pixel of a 1080p source reproduced as is, then LCDs are seemingly the way to go. However, 1080p is quickly becoming the norm, with many LCDs now featuring 1920x1080-pixel resolutions. Budget LCDs and plasmas on the other hand feature either 1366x768 or even 1024x768 (720p) resolutions. If you're buying a screen 50 inches or larger, there's now no reason to get anything less than 1080p.
Despite the current HD buzz, there is still very little content available in 1080p — especially when compared to the infinite amount of SD content like TV programs and DVDs. At present, Blu-ray, and some HD downloads, are the only sources that can do 1080p, and free-to-air is only 1080i.
But it isn't all about the resolution — it's not the pixels, it's what you do with them. Most modern TVs, and even budget ones, will accept a 1080p input, and it depends on the quality of the scalar on-board as to how good a picture you'll get. The big names — Panasonic, Sony, Samsung and LG — usually have very good image processors that can resize the source content — whether it's a DVD, Blu-ray or FTA — to the resolution of your screen without a problem.
Now that you have read about the main differences between plasma and LCD TVs you may have decided which one is right for you. They both have stunning, clear pictures and most models offer amazing widescreen viewing - so you can't go far wrong with either! However, it's worth considering where you are going to watch your TV and for what main purpose you will use it. If you are looking for a smaller screen to put in a TV, bedroom or small living room - LCD is probably your best bet. If you're looking for a home cinema screen, then a larger plasma model may be the one for you.
Google has a giant target on its back. Microsoft has been on a spending and deal-making spree to grow Bing , recently signing a huge search deal with Yahoo. And with Bing starting to steal some market share from Google, it’s proving to be a formidable opponent. Oh, and now you can’t count out Facebook either, which justlaunched a new realtime search engine.
Google’s not taking any of this lying down. Secretly, they’ve been working on a new project: the next generation of Google Search. This isn’t just some minor upgrade, but an entire new infrastructure for the world’s largest search engine. In other words: it’s a new version of Google.http://www2.sandbox.google.com (This is for test you can use it to compare with the current one)
The project’s still under construction, but Google’s now confident enough in the new version of its search engine that it has released the development version for public consumption. While you won’t see too many differences immediately, let us assure you: it’s a completely upgraded Google search.
Google specifically states that its goal for the new version of Google Search is to improve its indexing speed, accuracy, size, and comprehensiveness. Here’s what they wrote:
“For the last several months, a large team of Googlers has been working on a secret project: a next-generation architecture for Google’s web search. It’s the first step in a process that will let us push the envelope on size, indexing speed, accuracy, comprehensiveness and other dimensions. The new infrastructure sits “under the hood” of Google’s search engine, which means that most users won’t notice a difference in search results. But web developers and power searchers might notice a few differences, so we’re opening up a web developer preview to collect feedback.”
Alexa.com of recent published a list of most accessed websites around the world. We decided to compliment these results with website outlook’s evaluation results of each website. Websiteoutlook.com evaluates how much a website is worth on the market. See the 10 most accessed websites around the world. Give your comment.
1. Google [google.com]
Enables users to search the Web, Usenet, and images. Features include PageRank, caching and translation of results, and an option to find similar pages. The company's focus is developing search technology. Google.com is estimated to be work $2.41 Billion USD and generates revenue approximately $3.3 Million USD daily.
2. Yahoo! [ yahoo.com ]
Provides free email accounts, search options, chartrooms, clubs, magazines on almost all general fields, the latest News, Finance, Sport and Entertainment. Yahoo.com is estimated $1.2 Billion USD and generates revenue of $1.6 Million USD daily.
3. Facebook [ facebook.com ]
Facebook is a social utility that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. Facebook.com worth $602.25 Million USD and estimated to generate $825,003 Million USD daily.
4. YouTube [ youtube.com ]
YouTube is a way to get your videos to the people who matter to you. Upload, tag and share your videos worldwide! Youtube.com estimated worth $803 Million USD and generates $1.1 Million USD daily.
5. Windows Live [ live.com ]
Search engine from Microsoft. Your life. Your stuff. One place. Windows Live. Instant messaging, e-mail, photos and files—with you online, wherever you go. Live.com is estimated worth $481.8 Million and makes $660,000 USD daily.
6.Microsoft Network (MSN) [ msn.com ]
MSN is Microsoft's portal, offering MSNBC News, sports, MSN Money, games, videos, entertainment & celebrity gossip, weather, shopping and many more. Msn.com estimated worth $401.5 Million USD and makes $550, 000 USD dialy.
7. Blogger.com [blogger.com ]
Blogger is a free blog publishing tool from Google for easily sharing your thoughts with the world. Blogger makes it simple to post text, photos and video. Free, automated weblog publishing tool that sends updates to a site via FTP. Blogger.com estimated $301 Million USD and makes $413,000 USD daily.
8. Wikipedia [ wikipedia.org ]
Wikipedia is a free online, web-based and collaborative multilingual encyclopedia, born in the project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Wikipedia.org estimated worth $344 Million USD and generates almost $472,000 USD daily.
9. Baidu.com [baidu.com ]
The leading Chinese language search engine, provides "simple and reliable" search experience, strong in Chinese language and multi-media content including MP3 music and movies, the first to offer WAP and PDA-based mobile search in China. Baidu.com estimated worth $267 Million USD and generates $367,000 USD daily.
10. Myspace [myspace.com]
Social Networking Site. Find friends & classmates, meet new people, listen to free music & build playlists, share photos, watch videos. Estimated worth $219 Million USD with $300,000 USD daily revenue.
Tell us what you think. Which are your most accessed website.